The growth, recruitment and mortality of seedlings ≥20 cm tall on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (625773 easting and 1011774 northing in UTM Zone 17). Seedlings were monitored in ~20,000 one square-meter plots within the 50-ha forest dynamics plot (FDP). The 50-ha FDP plot is a 1000 m by 500 m rectangle of lowland tropical moist forest inside of which all woody trees and shrubs with stems at least 1 cm in diameter at 1.3m tall (dbh) have been censused at ~5 year intervals since the early 1980’s. In 2001, 20,000 1 m2 seedling plots were established in a 5-m grid across the FDP, where all freestanding woody plants greater than 20 cm in height and less than 1 cm d.b.h. are measured, tagged and identified yearly until 2013 (except in 2005, 2007 and 2010; seedlings were not censused in a small subset of the 20,000 plots to avoid damage to previously established research plots; see Comita et al. 2007 and Comita and Hubbell 2009 for more details).