DATA FOR Increased breakdown of kynurenine towards its neurotoxic branch in bipolar disorder PLOS ONE

The study was conducted at the Medical University of Graz, Department of Psychiatry. All patients took part in the ongoing single centre BIPFAT study, that assesses demographic parameters, complete actual and lifetime psychiatric history using the Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV (SCID I),, history of medication, anthropometric measure, blood pressure, fasting blood, cognitive testing, EEG, stool sample, different lifestyle questionnaires and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. All patients included were former in- or outpatients of the Medical University of Graz and had a diagnosis of BD I or BD II according to the DSM-IV criteria. Patients needed to be in the state of euthymia or mild depression (HAM-D score <14 and YMRS <9) and had given written informed consent prior to participating in the study. The study has been approved by the local ethics committee (Medical University of Graz, Austria) in compliance with the current revision of the Declaration of Helsinki, ICH guideline for Good Clinical Practice and current regulations (EK-number: 24-123 ex 11/12). Exclusion criteria were the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders (i.e. Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's disorder, multiple sclerosis), hemodialysis and interferon-α-based immunotherapy. Further exclusion criteria for controls were the presence of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses (verified by SCID I) and first and second grade relationship to relatives with psychiatric disorders. We took peripheral TRYCAT blood levels of 143 euthymic and mild depressive BD patients and 101 healthy controls. Targeted parameters were the levels of KYN, KYNA, 3-HK and AA, the ratio between end-products and substrates as proxies for the specific enzymatic activity (3-HK/KYN, KYNA/KYN, AA/KYN) as well as 3-HK/KYNA as a proxy for neurotoxic vs. neuroprotective end-product relation. Because of technical issues AA could only be evaluated in 113 BD and 88 HC. The analyzation took place at the Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Medical Center of Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.