This data-set reports results from long-term experimental treatments manipulating fire frequency in a native tallgrass prairie in the Central Great Plains, U.S.A. (39’05” N, 96’35” W). All plots are from lowland locations and were not grazed by large grazers during the experiments. Methods for calculating cover are described in the “Methods” section of the main text and in Appendix S1. The column “Watershed_designation” uses the same watershed designations as Table 1 in the main text. “Fire_treatment” refers to the fire frequency treatment a plot was grouped into for all calculations (see Table 1). For each watershed there were twenty plots (see “Plot_number”) arrayed over four transects per watershed (see “Transect_number”). Note that from year 2000 onwards, plots in 4B were sometimes visited in a different order, leading to some mislabeling of “Plot_number”. Therefore, the plot labels might not be consistent between locations in 4b after year 2000, but the same physical locations were measured each year. “Grass_cover” is the summed cover of the four dominant C4 grasses species. “Shrub_cover” is the summed cover of shrub and tree species that consistently maintain foliage above the grass layer. Cover within both functional groups is in units of “the sum of plant canopy cover per species per unit ground area” and can therefore exceed 100%, due to the presence of multiple overlapping canopies of different species. “NA” in the “Grass_cover” or “Shrub_cover” indicates that data were not available due to a disruption of the fire frequency treatment (see Table 1). For more information, including updates to the data-set, see description of PVC02 on the Konza Prairie LTER website: