This dataset presents data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Dogs (HDSS-Dogs) in Hluvukani settlement in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, from 1st January 2012 through 1st January 2014. Each row represents one residence episode for a dog in a household or ‘stand’ (a plot or parcel of land). Residence episodes within households begin with birth or in-migration (e.g. purchase or receipt of a dog), and terminate with death or out-migration (e.g. sale or gifting of dog to another household). Data collected are all owner-reported, collected by the study team during regular, repeat visits every 4-6 months (‘rounds’) to all households in the demographic surveillance area.