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posted on 25.11.2019by Luciano Nicholas Naka, Catherine L. Bechtoldt, L. Magalli Pinto Henriques, Robb T. Brumfield
Pairs were considered ‘in contact’ when i) specimens or field observations documented both taxa to occur in syntopy (actual contact), ii) both taxa were found at nearby localities (< 20 km) in a continuous habitat (virtual contact), or iii) phenotypically intermediate birds (i.e., birds with intermediate plumage patterns or coloration, suggesting hybridization) were reported in the literature or found in ornithological collections. For those intermediate-looking specimens found in collections, we restricted our analyses to areas located in the geographically intervening regions between two taxa ranges (parapatric contact zones).